Our glossary

The Paris Good Fashion glossary was born following the citizen consultation on responsible fashion carried out in 2020 at the initiative of our association alongside a collective of committed actors*.

It responds to the expectations expressed by more than 107,000 participants, concerning the need for consumer information and the need to use a common language understood by all. Hence, the members of Paris Good Fashion decided to develop this glossary in order to exchange and communicate on the same basis.

Initially published in French, this glossary is now available in English in order to make as many people as possible benefit from this work. It includes about 350 definitions, and is the result of collaborative work with our members**.

  1. We first defined the main categories and terms to be included. First, we defined the main categories and terms to be included: general terms of fashion and sustainable development, labels and certifications, actors and initiatives, and materials. Another category was established, that of "Basic concepts". It includes the most important generic terms of our sector. These are also often the most complex, as their scope is either very broad or unclear.
  2. Then, we carried out bibliographical research, which allowed us to carry out a state of the art of the existing definitions by basing them on the official and international definitions when they existed.
  3. When they did not exist, the terms were the subject of consultation and in-depth reflection by Sylvie Benard, Clémence Grisel and Isabelle Lefort in order to be enriched and as precise as possible. For each term, you will find the bibliographic references that helped establish its definition.
  4. Following this work which took place from March 2021 to February 2022, the definitions were submitted to the members for correction and validation. Special thanks go to Claudia Lee and Guy Morgan (Chanel), François Souchet (BPCM), and Andrée-Anne Lemieux (IFM) for their careful reading of the translation, coordinated by Clémence Grisel.

If you would like to know more, or have any suggestions, please contact us at contact@parisgoodfashion.com

* Eram Group, Etam Group, Galeries Lafayette, Petit Bateau, Vestiaire Collective, WSN

** They participated in the WG: Chantal Cabantous (Balmain), François Souchet (BPCM), Éric Dupont, Guy Morgan, Claudia Lee (Chanel), Christophe Bocquet and Aude Vergne (Chloé), Sylvain Cariou and Hugo Sereys (Crystalchain), Clémence Hulet and Alice Timmerman (Deloitte), Géraldine Vallejo, Yoann Regent and Annabelle Villot Malka (Kering), Frédéric Lecoq (Lacoste), Hélène Valade and Alexandre Capelli (LVMH), Thomas Bucaille and Pauline Mattioli (Petit Bateau) as well as Léonore Garnier (FHCM), Adeline Dargent (Syndicat de Paris de la Mode Féminine) and Andrée-Anne Lemieux (IFM)

Universal access enables all individuals to have access to all places. People with functional limitations are able to access buildings and facilities in normal conditions of operation, move around, use premises and equipment, find their way, communicate and benefit from the services the building or facility is designed to provide, as independently as possible. Conditions of access must be identical for people with a broad range of abilities and disabilities or, if this is not possible, provide equivalent quality of use.

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A law passed in France on February 11, 2005 on the equal rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled persons requires establishments serving the public to be accessible to people with all types of disability.

Reference: French Secretary of State for people with disabilities
The three pillars of the Aarhus Convention are the right for citizens to access environmental information, to participate in environmental decision-making and to challenge environmental matters in court. This fundamental text is intended to create trust between citizens and their institutions, and in the wider democratic process.

By granting citizens a role in the environmental debate, the Aarhus Convention fulfils expectations of transparency and accessibility that are synonymous with good public governance.

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The foundations for the Aarhus Convention were laid by the Rio Declaration:

• 1992: Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration of June 14, 1992 states that “Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level.”
• 1995: Held in Sofia, Bulgaria, on October 25, 1995, the Third Ministerial Conference "Environment for Europe" introduced a series of non-compulsory Guidelines on Access to Environmental Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making. These guidelines were the basis for negotiations, from early 1996 until March 1998, that led to the drafting of the Aarhus Convention.
• 1998: On June 25, 1998 in Aarhus, Denmark, the Fourth Ministerial Conference "Environment for Europe" approved the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, commonly known as the Aarhus Convention.
• 2001: On October 30, 2001 the Aarhus Convention entered into force after ratification by 16 countries.
• 2002: On July 8, 2002 France ratified the Aarhus Convention which came into force on October 6, 2002 under law n° 2002-285 of February 28, 2002, which authorised approval of the Aarhus Convention, and decree n° 2002-1187 of September 12, 2002 which gave effect to the Aarhus Convention.

French General Commission for Sustainable Development
Aarhus Convention (1998)
Formal third-party recognition delivered to a conformity assessment body (CAB). Accreditation confirms that the accredited body has the competence to carry out the specific activities required to verify conformity.

In France, only COFRAC (Comité Français d'Accréditation) is authorised to accredit CABs. From a voluntary status, accreditation has become obligatory in certain sectors, with the result that around fifty per cent of CABs are accredited.

See: COFRAC, certification body

COFRAC - Certification and accreditation
COFRAC - What is accreditation?
Man-made fibre derived from cellulose taken from wood pulp. The cellulose is combined with acetic acid and acetic anhydride. Once dry, the precipitate is dissolved in a solvent and the filaments are extruded.

Acetate production can contribute to deforestation when the wood pulp is not responsibly sourced, e.g. pulp from endangered forests. Certifications and initiatives such as FSC, PEFC and CanopyStyle provide assurance that cellulose comes from sustainably managed sources.

Another major problem arises from the large number of chemicals used to dissolve the pulp and obtain the finished filaments. They release chemical substances and gases that are potentially harmful to workers and the environment.

Lyocell and Cupro are two alternatives to acetate that are produced in a similar but more sustainable way. Lyocell uses wood pulp from sustainably managed forests while Cupro is manufactured in a closed-loop process during which no harmful waste is released into the environment.

Kering Standards
Textile Addict
Synthetic fibre made from polymerised acrylonitrile (a petroleum derivative), which is dissolved with a solvent then extruded.

Like other synthetic fibres, acrylic raises numerous environmental concerns: the use of fossil resources as feedstock; carbon emissions during production; consumption of chemicals, energy and water, and a complex recycling process. Also, the acrylonitrile contained in acrylic is considered to be a possible human carcinogen and mutagen.

Like the majority of synthetic fibres, acrylic is linked to microfibre – and more particularly microplastic – pollution which endangers marine life and poses a serious risk to human and environmental health.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Fédération Maille, Lingerie et Balnéaire
Kering Standards
Part of AFNOR, France’s national standards body. The AFNOR group operates four business units: standardisation, certification, publishing and training. It is the sole organisation, appointed by the Ministry of the Environment, to award the European Ecolabel in France.

French environmental agency under the Ministry of Ecological Transition, Ministry of Higher Education and Ministry of Research and Innovation. Ademe implements and coordinates action for environmental protection and energy conservation in five areas: waste; contaminated and disused land; energy and the climate; air and noise; sustainable production, consumption, towns and regions.

Reference: Ademe
French concept that has no equivalent in English.
Natural, biodegradable, animal fibre made from wild silkworm cocoons. In most cases, the worm is allowed to spin its cocoon before it's boiled or baked. In this case, only a small part of the insect's wing is used for spinning and no more than one-third of its body length; in fact, some producers allow them to mature fully before harvesting, killing them in the process. In conventional silk production, the worms are steamed or boiled while still in their cocoons before the silk can be harvested.

See: Silk

Reference: The Uptide
A substance that triggers an allergy; a set of reactions by the body’s immune system following contact with, ingestion of or inhalation of that substance.

Reference: French Ministry of Economy
The largest French trade association for clothing and personal accessories. Alliance du Commerce helps businesses adapt to a changing retail environment marked by digital transformation, sustainable development and shifting consumer behaviour. Its members are department stores, clothing retailers and footwear retailers.

Alliance du Commerce
Natural, animal fibre produced by shearing alpacas (members of the llama family). Alpaca wool comes from two types of fleece: huacayo, which has short, dense, spongy fibres, and suri, which has longer, straight, silky fibres.

Alpaca fibre production is more or less sustainable depending on farm management (ecosystem management, chemical treatments, etc.) and animal welfare criteria.

Textile Exchange’s Responsible Alpaca Standard applies strict criteria of animal welfare, responsible land management, and social welfare.

Textile Exchange (2022) Preferred Fiber & Materials Report
Textile Exchange - Responsible Alpaca Standard
Kering Standards
Natural, animal fibre produced from the fur of the angora rabbit (not to be confused with the angora goat, which is used to produce mohair). The fur is harvested in a number of ways, including combing and shearing.

Around 90% of angora is produced in China, where the fur is torn from the live rabbit’s skin. Because of the extremely high risk of abuse – both general treatment and during fur harvesting – many brands have withdrawn angora from their ranges.

Textile Exchange (2022) Preferred Fiber & Materials Report
The Good Goods
Animal welfare refers to an animal’s mental and physical state. This state can be positive, neutral or negative according to the animal’s ability to satisfy its physiological and behavioural needs and wants.

Animal welfare is frequently defined in relation to the Five Freedoms. These Five Freedoms are one of the guiding principles which inform the work of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). First published in 1979 in the United Kingdom by the Farm Animal Welfare Council, they are widely recognised and inscribed in the OIE’s Terrestrial Code. They are:

• Freedom from hunger, malnutrition and thirst
• Freedom from fear and distress
• Freedom from heat stress or physical discomfort
• Freedom from pain, injury and disease
• Freedom to express normal patterns of behaviour

French Ministry of Agriculture
World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH)
A concept for a new geological epoch which describes the significant, human-induced changes to Earth’s structure and systems, including climate change. The term appeared in Earth system science in 2000 and could become an official unit of geological time if stratigraphic analysis shows that human activity has altered the Earth system to the point of forming signatures which can be distinguished from those of the Holocene epoch and which are preserved in geological strata.

Stratigraphic analysis and analysis of the Earth system indicates that the Anthropocene epoch would begin in the mid-twentieth century, although other dates have been proposed and are under study. The concept has been adopted by a wide range of disciplines and by the public to mark the profound influence of human activity on the state, dynamic and future of the Earth system.

Reference: IPCC (2022) Glossary
Synthetic polyamide, known for heat-resistance and strength, that is widely used to make safety clothing and composite materials.

Like other conventional synthetic fibres, aramid raises numerous environmental concerns, particularly in terms of using fossil resources as feedstock, carbon emissions during production and consumption of chemicals, energy and water. Like the majority of synthetic fibres, aramid is linked to microfibre – and more particularly microplastic – pollution which endangers marine life and poses a serious risk to human and environmental health.

Biosynthetic (or bio-sourced) fibres, manufactured either wholly or partly with polymers from renewable resources, along with recycled aramid offer more sustainable alternatives to conventional synthetic fibres, which rely on virgin fossil resources.

Kering Standards
The Good Goods
Defined by ISO 2382-28 as an “interdisciplinary field, usually regarded as a branch of computer science, dealing with models and systems for the performance of functions generally associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning and learning”.

In the textile industry, AI can be used in many different ways, including for stock management, sales forecasting and trend forecasting.

Reference: ISO/IEC 2382-28:1995: Information technology
Waste produced in small quantities by professionals (companies, craftsmen, shops, etc.) and the tertiary sector (administrations, hospitals) which, due to its nature, can be collected at the same time as household waste.

French General Local Authorities Code
ISO 19011 defines an audit as a “systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled". These criteria are set out in specifications which may take an international, European or national voluntary standard as a baseline. An audit can be internal (first-party) or external (second-party and third-party).

ISO 19011: Guidelines for auditing management systems